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Hetzner: Aktualisierung auf Ubuntu-20.04

Ich habe bei Hetzner ein paar Linux-Server im Einsatz. Diese verwenden eine vollverschlüsselte Festplatte und führen im Wesentlichen einige LXC-Container aus.

Einige der Server laufen noch unter Ubuntu-18.04. Diese muß ich hochziehen auf Ubuntu-20.04. Bislang habe ich dafür immer eine Neuinstallation durchgeführt, jetzt teste ich es auch mal mit einer Aktualisierung.

Vorarbeiten

Bevor die Aktualisierung begonnen werden kann müssen wir den bestehenden Server aktualisieren:

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[email protected]:~ # apt update
[email protected]:~ # apt upgrade

Aktualisierung

Nach der Annmeldung am Server wird angezeigt, wie man eine Aktualisierung durchführen kann:

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[email protected]:~ $ ssh mein-server
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-60-generic x86_64)
...
New release '20.04.1 LTS' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.
...

Also:

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[email protected]:~ # do-release-upgrade
Checking for a new Ubuntu release
...
If you continue, an additional ssh daemon will be started at port 
'1022'. 
Do you want to continue? 

Continue [yN] y

Starting additional sshd 

To make recovery in case of failure easier, an additional sshd will 
be started on port '1022'. If anything goes wrong with the running 
ssh you can still connect to the additional one. 
If you run a firewall, you may need to temporarily open this port. As 
this is potentially dangerous it's not done automatically. You can 
open the port with e.g.: 
'iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 1022 -j ACCEPT' 

To continue please press [ENTER]

Zur Sicherheit mache ich ein zweites Fenster auf und verbinde mich über den neuen Port mit dem Server:

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[email protected]:~ $ ssh -p 1022 mein-server
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-60-generic x86_64)
...
Your Hardware Enablement Stack (HWE) is supported until April 2023.
Last login: Thu Jan 14 10:25:26 2021 from 91.89.124.131
[email protected]:~ # 

Zurück zum ersten Fenster:

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...
To continue please press [ENTER] ENTER

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree        
Reading state information... Done
Hit http://mirror.hetzner.de/ubuntu/packages bionic InRelease
Hit http://mirror.hetzner.de/ubuntu/packages bionic-backports InRelease
...
Third party sources disabled 

Some third party entries in your sources.list were disabled. You can 
re-enable them after the upgrade with the 'software-properties' tool 
or your package manager. 

To continue please press [ENTER] ENTER
...
Do you want to start the upgrade? 


7 installed packages are no longer supported by Canonical. You can 
still get support from the community. 

5 packages are going to be removed. 65 new packages are going to be 
installed. 349 packages are going to be upgraded. 

You have to download a total of 322 M. This download will take about 
40 minutes with a 1Mbit DSL connection and about 12 hours with a 56k 
modem. 

Fetching and installing the upgrade can take several hours. Once the 
download has finished, the process cannot be canceled. 

 Continue [yN]  Details [d] y

Also diese Aktionen: – ENTER – ENTER – y ENTER

Danach erscheinen diverse Hiweise: * Service-Restarts: OK. * HTTP-Tunnels in Apt-Cacher NG erlauben: Nein! * /etc/crontab – keep current version * /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf – keep current version * /etc/ssh/ssh_config – keep current version * /etc/ssh/sshd_config – keep current version * Remove obsolete packages? Ja! * Restart required – continue? Ja!

Der Server wird nun durchgestartet, das zweite Fenster wird abgeklemmt! Der Server kann wie üblich gestartet werden. Nach dem Neustart sieht der Server weitgehend unverändert aus, er läuft aber mit Ubuntu-20.04:

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Welcome to Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-60-generic x86_64)
...

Nacharbeiten

Es gibt unnötige Pakete, beispielsweise den alten Kernel:

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[email protected] ~ # apt upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  linux-headers-generic-hwe-18.04 linux-image-generic-hwe-18.04
Use 'apt autoremove' to remove them.
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Wir lassen einfach alle unnötigen Pakete deinstallieren:

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[email protected] ~ # apt autoremove
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  linux-headers-generic-hwe-18.04 linux-image-generic-hwe-18.04
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 2 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
After this operation, 36.9 kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
(Reading database ... 64495 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing linux-headers-generic-hwe-18.04 (5.4.0.62.65) ...
Removing linux-image-generic-hwe-18.04 (5.4.0.62.65) ...

Nachkontrolle:

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[email protected] ~ # apt upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Zusatzbereinigung:

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[email protected] ~ # dpkg --get-selections linux*
linux-base                    install
linux-firmware                    install
linux-generic                 install
linux-generic-hwe-18.04               install
linux-headers-5.4.0-62                install
linux-headers-5.4.0-62-generic            install
linux-headers-generic             install
linux-image-5.4.0-62-generic          install
linux-image-generic               install
linux-modules-5.4.0-62-generic            install
linux-modules-extra-5.4.0-62-generic      install

[email protected] ~ # apt purge `dpkg --get-selections linux*18.04*|cut -f1`
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  linux-generic-hwe-18.04*
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
After this operation, 18.4 kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
(Reading database ... 65984 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing linux-generic-hwe-18.04 (5.4.0.62.65) ...

Historie und Anmerkung

  • 2021-01-16: Nacharbeiten
  • 2021-01-15: Erste Version